In most cases, Malaria is transmitted through the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are more than 400 different species of Anopheles mosquito; around 30 are Malaria vectors of major importance. All of the important vector species bite between dusk and dawn. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.
Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce Malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community.
WHO recommends protection for all people at risk of Malaria with effective malaria vector control. Two forms of vector control insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying are effective in a wide range of circumstances.
Diagnosis And Treatment
Early diagnosis and treatment reduces the disease and prevents death. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission. The best available treatment, particularly for P. falciparum Malaria, is artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT).
WHO recommends that all cases of suspected Malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment. Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 30 minutes or less. Treatment, solely on the basis of symptoms should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not possible.
The WHO Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030 provides a technical framework for all Malaria ridden countries. It is intended to guide and support regional and country programmes as they work towards malaria control and elimination.
The strategy sets ambitious but achievable global targets, including:
- Reducing malaria case incidence by at least 90% by 2030.
- Reducing malaria mortality rates by at least 90% by 2030.
- Eliminating malaria in at least 35 countries by 2030.
- Preventing a resurgence of Malaria in all countries that are Malaria free.
This strategy was the result of an extensive consultative process that spanned 2 years and involved the participation of more than 400 technical experts from 70 Member States.
It is based on 3 key pillars:
- Ensuring universal access to malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
- Accelerating efforts towards elimination and attainment of Malaria free status.
- Transforming Malaria surveillance into a core intervention.